Git is the free and open-source distributed version control system that’s responsible for everything GitHub related that happens locally on your computer. This guide features the most important and commonly used Git commands for easy reference. This guide provides a list of the most common GIT commands, a short description for them and example usage.

Before we begin, you should run git –version to check your current git version. Here is the official git documentation, you can read details about git commands, parameters and new releases of git.

Configuration of Github.


SETUP GIT
Configuring user information used across all local repositories
git config --global user.name “[firstname lastname]” Set a name that is identifiable for credit when reviewing version history
git config --global user.email “[valid-email]” Set an email address that will be associated with each history marker
git config --global color.ui auto Set automatic command line coloring for Git for easy reviewing

Working with git – Important Git commands.


SETUP & INIT
Configuring user information, initializing and cloning repositories.
git init Initialize an existing directory as a Git repository.
git clone [url] Retrieve an entire repository from a hosted location via URL.

STAGE & SNAPSHOT


STAGE & SNAPSHOT.
Working with snapshots and the Git staging area.
git status Show modified files in the working directory, staged for your next commit
git add [file] Add a file as it looks now to your next commit (stage)
git reset [file] Unstage a file while retaining the changes in the working directory.
git diff diff of what is changed but not staged.
git diff --staged diff of what is staged but not yet committed.
git commit -m “[descriptive message]” Commit your staged content as a new commit snapshot

BRANCH & MERGE


BRANCH & MERGE
Isolating work in branches, changing context, and integrating changes.
git branch list your branches. a * will appear next to the currently active branch
git branch [branch-name] create a new branch at the current commit
git checkout switch to another branch and check it out into your working directory
git merge [branch] merge the specified branch’s history into the current one
git log Show all commits in the current branch’s history

INSPECT & COMPARE


INSPECT & COMPARE
Examining logs, diffs and object information
git log Show the commit history for the currently active branch
git log branchB..branchA Show the commits on branchA that are not on branchB.
git log --follow [file] Show the commits that changed file, even across renames.
git diff branchB...branchA Show the diff of what is in branchA that is not in branchB.
git show [SHA] Show any object in Git in human-readable format

TRACKING PATH CHANGES.


TRACKING PATH CHANGES
Versioning file removes and path changes
git rm [file] Delete the file from project and stage the removal for commit
git mv [existing-path] [new-path] Change an existing file path and stage the move
git log --stat -M Show all commit logs with indication of any paths that moved

SHARE & UPDATE


SHARE & UPDATE
Retrieving updates from another repository and updating local repos.
git remote add [alias] [url] add a git URL as an alias
git fetch [alias] fetch down all the branches from that Git remote
git merge [alias]/[branch] merge a remote branch into your current branch to bring it up to date
git push [alias] [branch] Transmit local branch commits to the remote repository branch
git pull fetch and merge any commits from the tracking remote branch

REWRITE HISTORY


REWRITE HISTORY
Rewriting branches, updating commits and clearing history
git rebase [branch] Apply any commits of current branch ahead of specified one
git reset --hard [commit] Clear staging area, rewrite working tree from specified commit

TEMPORARY COMMITS


TEMPORARY COMMITS
Temporarily store modified, tracked files in order to change branches
git stash Save modified and staged changes
git stash list List stack-order of stashed file changes
git stash pop Write working from top of stash stack
git stash drop Discard the changes from top of stash stack.

Next Step

After learning all the basic GitHub commands, then to put your project up on GitHub, you’ll need to create a repository for it to live in. For more information on this karunakar Patel blog, you will walk through the Absolute method to start and create your first own GitHub repository right from start to finish.